“Girmitiyas” or Indentured Labourers, is the name given the Indians who left Indian in the middle and late 19th Century to serve as labourers in the British colonies, where the majority eventually settled. GIRMIT is a corrupt form of the English word “Agreement”.  A labour emigrating under the Agreement or Girmit was a “Girmitiya”.


This website focuses on over 60,500 labourers who were transported to the Fiji Islands over a period of 37 years (1875 – 1916) to work on the plantations of Fiji. 

This site serves as a knowledge base, a research tool, and its available especially for the descendants of the original labourers (Girmitiyas) who are passionate to find out more about their history and wish to verify their heritage.

GIRMIT.org has been established to primarily focus on providing information for anyone who is interested in the history of the Indentured Labourers, the “Girmitiyas” who were transported to Fiji by the British under the System of Indenture or GIRMIT which was the term used by the Indian Indentures for the word AGREEMENT.

How to search for an Immigration Pass?

Girmit.org and I (Vanita Kumar) acknowledge the National Archives of Fiji as custodians of the original collection material. The passes have been digitised and are freely available online through the National Library of Australia.

They can be consulted in several ways including:

Access the list of Girmitiyas in a searchable/sortable index of:

If you wish to submit an enquiry to the Australian National Library (NLA) for a copy or copies of emigration passes but do not know such information as the date or the name of the ship on which your relatives arrived, it is recommended that you first obtain copies of any / all registered civil events concerning your relatives in Fiji.

Some Fijian birth certificates of children born to Indian immigrant parents are known to state the name of the ship of each parent.

Although not explicitly required to be stated in the ‘First Schedule, Form No. 1. (Section 11.) Register of Births, of the Ordinance for the Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriages (No. 2 of 1892)’, the provision of the name of the ship on which the immigrant Indian parent arrived may have been a recognized substitution for other information stated to be required in the Schedule, ie: father’s name and surname, rank or profession, age and birthplace, when and where married, previous issue living and deceased, as well as mother’s name and maiden surname, age and birthplace.

According to the ‘Marriage Ordinance 1918, Schedule F.—(Section 4.) Certificate of Marriage of Indian Immigrants Introduced into the Colony’, the details required to be provided were their:

  • Name
  • Age
  • Registered No.
  • Fathers’ Name
  • Name of Ship
  • Ship’s No.
  • Place where married, and
  • Name of employer and estate to which indentured

The British and other European colonial powers started the Indian indenture system in 1838, as a cheap source of labour to their colonies after African slavery was abolished in 1833. Under this system, some 1.2 million Indians were displaced from India to the colonies between 1838 and 1916.  Indian indentured emigration to Fiji began in 1879. It was started by Sir Arthur Gordon, the first substantive governor of the colony (1875-80), to meet the shortage of labour caused by the prohibition of commercial employment of the Fijians and by the increasing uncertainty and cost of the Polynesian labour trade.

In North India, there was great popular resistance to emigration and it was difficult to obtain recruits, especially women. The emigration system was unsuited to Indian conditions, the regulation did not always work in the way intended, and abuses were widespread. Most of the emigrants were young and fit and were recruited as individuals in the towns.  They were a fair cross-section of village castes, had been driven by economic pressure or alienation from kin, and enlisted to secure high wages, with the intention of returning to India. The areas of recruitment were determined by economic, and, secondarily, by cultural factors. Most of the 60,965 emigrants came from the Gangetic plain, but 25% were recruited in Madras, where there was less resistance to emigration.

On the plantations, impersonality and drudgery were the rules.  Inspection safeguards were inadequate and immigrants found it difficult to secure redress in the courts.  Assaults and an excessive number of prosecutions were serious problems.  The food and medical attention were inadequate over most of the period.  Vice was rampant because of the disproportion of the sexes, unsatisfactory living conditions and the breakdown of social controls.  Because of the nature of Indian society, the breakdown was much greater than most migrations.

The contracts of the indentured labourers required them to work in Fiji for a certain period of time as specified in their agreements. After 5 years of Girmit, they were free to return to India at their own expense.

The colonial government was compelled to provide free passage back to India to every Girmitiya and their children, after 10 years of Girmit.

It is argued that they were prevented from returning to India by the colonial government of Fiji and the Colonial Sugar Refining Company (CSR) of Australia.

This was done to ensure a continued supply of Indian labour to Fiji’s sugar industry, on which Fiji’s economy depended at that time. Few of the immigrants kept up ties with India, but about 40% returned – many of them suffered great hardship.

Those who stayed did so because of new kinship ties or enhanced economic and social opportunity; the Government encouraged them to stay.  Most of them settled on the lands as farmers prospered and progressed. 

The majority of the Indo-Fijians are direct descendants of these exiled Girmitiyas of Fiji. This website is a homage to these Girmitiyas and their children.

This website has been created to pay tribute to these Girmitiyas and to provide information to anyone who shares similar interests and sentiments towards this very sensitive and important part of our history.

Author's Blogs

Girmitiyas – A Sad Tale (Video Credit NeoBihar)

Girmitiya Kantraki Bhojpuri Song | Raj Mohan | NeoBihar & Champaran Talkies This video has been produced by Neetu Chandra, featuring Raj Mohan, NeoBihar.

Quote from Tears in Paradise by Mr Rajendra Prasad

Rajendra Prasad’s Tears in Paradise is now available at Amazon as an ebook for your Kindle or Kindle App on your iOS or Android devices. I was very impressed with the Kindle edition of this book – the most convenient part is that I can flip to any page and read any bit as and…

Kunti’s Cry (An excerpt from “Chalo Jahaji – By Dr Brij Lal)

An employer often complains, that the women suckle their infants, too long and that they could be left in the lines much sooner than is usually done.  These gentlemen forget that these people have no other means of providing suitable nourishment for their children – Dr Hirsche, Chief Medical Officer, Fiji On 10 April 1913,…

The Story of Kunti & Naraini

The initial number of women in the Colonies were less.  It was also considered that if the labourers had a family living in the colonies they would be more likely to stay on. Women, however, were not treated well; apart from living in appalling conditions, they were expected to return to work on the farms…

An Indentured Labourer’s Story

I have taken screenshots from the BBC Documentary, Coolies:  How Britain Reinvented Slavery.  The full documentary is available under the History tab on this website.  The screenshots are part of the interview undertaken by Dr Brij V Lal who visited Late Mr Deo who was an indentured labourer who arrived in Fiji under the Indian…

Interview – The National Library of Australia

From 1879 to 1916, over 60,000 Indians migrated to Fiji under the Indentured Labourer Scheme. The British Government introduced the system to recruit labourers from India to work on plantations in Fiji. The Indian Indentured Labourer collection held at the National Library of Australia includes immigration passes, general registers, plantation registers, repatriation registers and death registers. These records are used by many…

Gallery - Rare Images

This website has been created to pay tribute to these Girmitiyas and to provide information to anyone who shares similar interests and sentiments towards this very sensitive and important part of our history.